The Political Education of Silicon Valley

“Confusion reigns in the government arena. Old labels no longer fit, and the citizenry seems torn between competing hungers for saviors and scapegoats.” So embarked a 1995 floor in WIRED on the position of digital-age politics. Electoral hubbub then amounted to a stalemate between “a Democratic president, a Republican Congress, and a slay of voters registering as’ Independent.’ ” More innocent occasions, clearly. Still, the public seemed to be looking for new paradigm, which induced WIRED to ask, “Is there a brand-new politics emerging in the Net/ cyberspace/ digital culture? ” The reaction was, cautiously, yes. And that politics was libertarianism, with its zeal for laissez-faire capitalism and disregard for the clumsy institutes of Big Government.

If you asked a same question today–is there a new Silicon Valley politics ?– “it wouldve been” pretty clear that libertarianism is greater the answer. Sure, obstreperous free-market idealists are still some of “the worlds largest” quotable members of the tech place, but certainly, the last right-leaning presidential campaigner to triumph Santa Clara County, the heart of Silicon Valley, was Ronald Reagan in 1984. As the tech manufacture has grown in capability and force, its politics have moved to the left. Bill Clinton plucked out wins in both his expedition. In 2012, Barack Obama acquired with 70 percent of the vote to Mitt Romney’s 27 percent, and employees of large-scale tech corporations like Apple and Google gave overwhelmingly to Obama’s campaign. Four year later, Bernie Sanders get 42 percent of the Democratic primary vote, and Hillary Clinton acquired 73 percentage of officers of the electorate in Santa Clara County, one of the most unbalanced solutions in California. Libertarian campaigner Gary Johnson? He received 3.64 % of votes, close to his national average.

Today many people working inside Silicon Valley, and many on the right who abuse it from great distances, consider the community to be “an extremely left-leaning region, ” as Mark Zuckerberg lately introduced it in congressional testament. When people want to understand Silicon Valley’s political bents, they often look to California’s 17 th Congressional District. Apple and Intel are headquartered there, as is Tesla’s manufacturing plant. In 2016, the voters of the 17 th elected Ro Khanna, a onetime representative helper secretary in Obama’s Commerce Department, to represent them. Based on his 2017 legislative register, GovTrack ranked Khanna the 14 th-most-liberal representative in the House.

Khanna is guiding for reelection this year, and one Saturday afternoon in June, he arrived at Mission San Jose High School in Fremont for a town hall confront. Standing at the rostrum wearing a twilight dres and hold, he was sharp-witted, entertaining, and in authority of the apartment. For a season, Khanna was a inspecting financials academic at Stanford University, and the general impression he pays onstage is of a effusive professor entertaining his undergraduates.

During the 90 -minute session, he gave testimonies that they are able to slot perfectly into the Sanders offstage of the Democratic Party. He began with a homily on the importance of stricter gun control. He pronounced up for Medicare for all and railed against the 2017 Republican excise part, saying he would have preferred to eliminate all student debt. The son of first-generation Indian immigrants, he also made a event for the importance of immigration and diversification in driving innovation. “I went to West Virginia, ” he told the crowd, “and they started out by asking me,’ What do we need to do to get more tech here, ’ and I enunciated,’ You involve a few more Indian restaurants.’ ”( Khanna knows his audience: His territory is more than 50 percentage Asian, many of South Asian ancestry .) Almost everything he proposed implied expanding the regime apparatus , not depriving it, as libertarians would presumably want to do.

But when you probe the actual evaluates held by the tech area, the narrative of tech’s continuous leftward march comes much more complicated–and fascinating. A widely discussed 2017 analyse conducted by Stanford political economists David Broockman and Neil Malhotra, are working with engineering journalist Greg Ferenstein, cross-examine the government qualities of more than 600 tech firm founders and CEOs–the elite of the tech elite. The top-line conclusion was, unsurprising by now, that Silicon Valley is not libertarian. The founders they cross-examine are least likely than even Democrats to embrace the core show of the libertarian worldview–that government should provide military members and police safety and otherwise leave parties alone to augment themselves. They expressed overwhelming is supportive of higher taxes on the prosperou and for universal health care. But in other directions they deviated from progressive creed. They were far more likely to emphasize the positive effects of entrepreneurial activity than liberals and had dim views of government regulation and labor unions that were closer to that of your average Republican donor than Democratic partisan.

If you scheme those costs on the matrix of conventional US politics, there appears to be a negation: The tech privileged crave an activist authority, but they don’t demand the government actively curbing them.( Sixty-two percent of the tech elite told the Stanford investigates that government should not tightly regulate business but should levy the prosperou to store social programs .) When the time comes to abundance redistribution and the social safety net, they sound like North Sea progressives. When you ask them about leagues or regulations, they sound like the Koch brothers. Seen together, those are not talking details that dally well with either party’s agenda.

The intellectuals Brink Lindsey and Steven Teles “re saying that” the tech area has actually stumbled into positions that approach a more coherent creed than it would first loom, one they have called “liberaltarianism.” Lindsey, who the hell vice president for plan at the Niskanen Center–a think tank that supports liberaltarian policies–describes the creed as one inspired by “the idea of a free-market aid commonwealth, which sounds like an oxymoron to most people but chimes to us like what good 21 st-century governance looks like, mixing substantial redistribution and social spending with go-go competitive markets.”

This is the new politics illusion up in Silicon Valley. In an age been characterised by ideological “sorting, ” Silicon Valley’s fundamental cosmopolitanism puts it all but fatally at odds with the Trumpist Republican Party; that leaves the stray liberaltarians of the tech industry to make do with a residence within the Democratic faction. Whether this ideology has resistance beyond the Big Tech hub of Northern California is debatable–as is whether the present progressive backfire against the tech upper-class makes any such faction far-fetched. But whatever you may think of Big Tech, it is arguably the single most influential absorption of new fortune and information networks in its own history of humanity. It would be good to have an accurate speak on what its politics are, and how they came to be.

Ro Khanna acquired with large-scale tech money–and is now drafting an Internet Bill of Rights.

Jared Soares

Few parties have a better vantage point to observe the changing worldview of Bay Area technologists than Stewart Brand. The founder of the Whole Earth Catalog , Brand cured record the legendary Douglas Engelbart demo of an early graphical user interface in 1968, planned the first hacker gathering in the ’8 0s, and cofounded the Well, one of the first online societies. Brand lives on a houseboat in Sausalito, and on a normally foggy date in late spring, I met him for lunch in a nearby diner to talk about the political changes he’s seen. “The people I knew in the Whole Earth Catalog periods were libertarian, and so was I, in a sort of knee-jerk acces, ” he says. “I bought Buckminster Fuller’s line that if “the worlds” unexpectedly lost all of its politicians, everybody would carry on without a hiccup, but if it abruptly lost all its scientists and designers, you wouldn’t make it to Monday–and therefore, don’t focus on politics, places great importance on real stuff.” Steve Jobs called the Whole Earth Catalog “one of the bibles” of his contemporary. It fused the counterculture’s those who are interested in society with a technologist’s preoccupation with tools that might expand human freedom and self-sufficiency. As Brand frames it, “Our line was sort of: Ask not what your country can do for you–do it yourself! Leave the country out of it.”

But in the mid-1 970 s, Brand went to work for Jerry Brown, who was then dishing his first expression as minister of California, and began to feel a shift in his own government thinking. “I got acquainted with what civil service employees people do, ” Brand remembers. “They are hardworking, public-spirited–people who work together for decades and don’t even just knowing that party the other belong to. And I realized that my libertarian sidekicks had no idea what authority does all day.”

Brand realized that they had confused the “whole demeaned process” of electoral politics with governance, which was, in fact, something whose omission “wouldve been” profoundly missed. “So I came back from working with Jerry Brown a definite post-libertarian.”

The Whole Earth Catalog was a touchstone for those who realized tech as a course to expand human freedom.

Jessica Ingram

The generation of programmers coming up behind Brand hadn’t hitherto had this show. “The early intruders, ” he remarks, “had grown up on Robert Heinlein, the teenage science fiction of alternative. And Heinlein was a serious libertarian.” That antigovernment ethos was also fueled by the cryptographer’s fright of a surveillance country. Fittingly, one of the first official advocacy groups born of the tech sector–the Electronic Frontier Foundation–focused on privacy and free-speech controversies. It fought government overreach in communications but was primarily agnostic about Big Government in other arenas of society.

The crescendo of Silicon Valley libertarianism would come in the 1990 s, with the inflation of the original internet bubble. Intuitions that had been softly seeping on bulletin board and at hacker seminars in the Bay Area abruptly were adopted in mainstream culture. Entitled by that influence, public eggheads from the tech sphere offered up statements “thats been” genuinely hostile to the mood, most famously John Perry Barlow’s 1996 Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. Its bombastic opening indications now read like a skit of cyber-libertarian bigotry: “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary monstrous of chassis and sword, I come from Cyberspace, the new dwelling of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.” An influential all-important essay from that period characterized what the authors called the “Californian Ideology, ” which they described as a kind of technological Manifest Destiny that surely leads to the deterioration of the state. “Information engineerings, so the dispute croaks, empower the individual, enhance personal freedom, and radically reduce the strength of the nation-state.” WIRED enlarged these anti-state statements, with plasters celebrating right-wing intellectuals and politicians like George Gilder and Newt Gingrich.

But even in this period of peak techno-utopianism, the Valley was more apolitical than ideological. In that 1995 article, WIRED acknowledged that the digital contemporary had little to do with academic or gathering libertarianism. It was more of a tribe, feral phenomenon, “a pioneer/ settler doctrine of self-reliance, direct war, and small-scale decentralism translated into pixels.” Mystics like Barlow loved propelling sentiment grenades into mainstream culture, but tech’s rank and file corresponded mainly of people who, as LinkedIn cofounder Reid Hoffman leans it, “just wanted to go build something that would make a big difference in the world.”

Stewart Brand rethought libertarianism when he went to work for Jerry Brown.

Jessica Ingram

Silicon Valley is still a home where people go to build and meddle with circumstances. And it was perhaps inescapable that, over duration, the individuals who flocked there used to get interested in tinkering with authority. One of the milestones in the transformation of Silicon Valley’s politics came in the first year of the Obama administration, with the publication of Tim O’Reilly’s short essay “Gov 2.0: It’s All About the Platform.” In 2004, O’Reilly had cofounded the Web 2.0 conference that laid the groundwork for the social media age. Now, his image for a new modeling of governance separated decisively from the anti-statism that had defined Barlow’s declaration a decade before. The tech sphere shouldn’t reject the “weary heavyweights of chassis and steel” but, rather, should help authority do a better racket at delivering services. In the Valley of the techno-libertarians, a class of earnest, incrementalist radical technocrats emerged.

Part of O’Reilly’s inspiration had come from watching the success of Meetup, which provided a stage for parties to connect and secure neighbourhood troubles. Acquiring a analogy from public policy expert Donald Kettl, O’Reilly quarrelled, “Too often, we think of authority as a kind of vending machine. We put in our taxes, and get off services: roads, aqueducts, hospitals, fire brigade, police armour … Our mind of citizen participation has somehow been reduced to shaking the vending machine. But what Meetup schools us is that engagement may mean giving our hands , not just our voices.”

Just as open stages like the internet had offered a venue for innovation, so could the government if “its been opened” the relevant information directs to outside partners. The classic inefficiencies of large-scale authority were something that it is able to overcome( or at least reduce) with better human boundary design.

O’Reilly’s contemplates were be complemented by a gathering, organized in 2009, announced Gov 2.0. One of its most important organizers of that seminar was Jennifer Pahlka.( She and O’Reilly have since married .) The two of them, and the conference of the states parties itself, were perfectly matched with the confident, solutions-oriented straining of Democratic politics then in superpower. In the next few months leading up to the conference, Pahlka spotted herself on a conference call with Obama’s White House CTO, Aneesh Chopra. “Obama really misses more than merely a meeting, ” Pahlka echoes Chopra telling her. “He wants us to do something . ” That succour, in part, produced Pahlka to find Code for America, one of the characterizing organisations shaping the tech sector’s advancing attitudes of government.

Today, Code for America has departments in downtown San Francisco, with motivational paraphrases about civic participation depicted on the walls.( “Government can work for the people, by the people, in the digital age.”)

Code for America’s ideology is essentially practical–“delivery ride, ” as Pahlka gives it. In 2014, for example, California passed a ballot measure called Prop 47, which threw nonviolent offenders the opportunity to downgrade their decisions to a misdemeanor and thus gain access to public housing and a better probability of going tasks. But the relevant procedures to get a offense belief increased is “incredibly difficult, ” Pahlka adds, and exclusively a relatively small percentage of people who are eligible complete it. To smooth the way, Code for America is working on a “user-centered, mobile-friendly tool” called Clear My Record.

“You think about advocacy in this country, ” Pahlka announces, “the win is get the existing legislation delivered. And then parties are like,’ Great, we got the law legislated! ’ But we didn’t used it.” Pahlka still believes in the strength of technology to help government perform its critical enterprises. But that data-driven, technocratic see of a better authority now faces an existential threat. Not exclusively is the Trump administration eliminating or reducing the types of programs tech liberals are in favour of, it’s too determining some people within tech fellowships investigate the government work they do. Employees at Microsoft, disturbed by the break-up of parents and children at the border, recently demonstrated the company’s creation for Immigration and Customs Enforcement. And thousands of Google employees protested that company’s direct on an neural networks assignment for the US armed; Google recently announced it wouldn’t pursue greatly contracts. Hiding behind these neighbourhood fracas is a deeper ardour of dreaded: that the tech sector–and the social networks it spawned–contributed meaningfully to Donald Trump’s victory.

Tim O’Reilly at the Code for America office.

Jessica Ingram

In May, I went to visit Khanna in his Washington office in the Cannon House Office Building, which is embellished in the spare, patriotic mode of most such spaces, an American pennant standing next to formulated photos of Khanna with his family and constituents. Khanna is a fan of Code for America and the Obama-era places great importance on authority its effectiveness and civic engagement; in a failed 2014 campaign for Congress, he was even fond of using the call “Government 2.0. ” But now he thinks that approach alone is inadequate. He’s got a bigger agenda–one informed by the loss of middle-class professions, the Sanders campaign, and Trump’s success with blue-collar voters. Sure, tech is about invention, but “the key component, ” he alleges, is “What is our character in helping people get good-paying errands? ” He points to Trump’s campaign message to parties in the coal and manufacturing industries: You improve America, and by God, you’re going to stay at the top of America. Not these other people who came after you . That word was potent and feeling. So, Khanna replies, the response can’t be “Well you know what? We’re going to be building better user interface for the federal government.”

During Khanna’s 2014 campaign, he passed as a pragmatic, tech-savvy progressive who could sling the dialect of Silicon Valley against the longtime Democratic incumbent, Mike Honda. The political arrangement, he told The New Yorker at the time, was static and needed “disruption” to “reintroduce the idea of risk-taking and meritocracy.” After leaving the Obama administration, Khanna was an intellectual property lawyer at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich& Rosati, a revered firm that had helped substantiate Silicon Valley as the corporate midst of technology. He was, in other words, someone the tech community concluded understood them in a way that Honda did not. Khanna racked up affirmations and subscriptions from the biggest words in tech, including even legendary Valley libertarian Peter Thiel, as well as Marc Andreessen , not known as a raging liberal. Still, Khanna lost.

He ran again in 2016 with a more staunchly progressive expedition concentrate on financial difference, and his schedule of Valley allies established no signed of deserting him; even Thiel re-upped. This time, Khanna won. Normally when a heavily funded applicant movements a populist campaign, he will tack back to the center once in place. But since Khanna has entered Congress, he’s become even more vocal about his progressive judgments. Now he talks both about user-centric scheme and an bold expansion of authority helps. During his first time in Congress, Khanna proposed a radical growth in the Earned Income Tax Credit, supplementing the wages of some low-income earners by $10,000 a year. Khanna conceives of the programmes as a reaction both to income stagnation and the rise of the gig economy. It would cost $1.4 trillion over 10 years–and hasn’t the slightest hazard of overtaking in the current Congress. He’s too drafting plans for a government-subsidized positions guaranty for the long-term jobless. It’s modeled after an Obama-era stimulus program–so it, too, is going nowhere.

But even Khanna’s EITC expansion plan is little radical than universal basic income, a organize of prosperity redistribution that has become something of a voodoo among some big names in the tech sector. Instead of taxation cuts or wage adds-on, UBI preaches propose plying a guaranteed income–a common part quoth is $12,000 a year–delivered to every American adult, regardless of income or employment. Prosperous tech execs did not has come forward with universal basic income–the concept’s lineage includes an interesting assortment of Milton Friedman and Martin Luther King Jr.–but they have played a significant part in creating UBI to mainstream notice. Supporters include Y Combinator’s Sam Altman and Facebook cofounder Chris Hughes, who really published a diary doing the occasion for it. Greg Ferenstein recommends the ebullience for UBI can be explained by the idea that it is “a sort of speculation investing in citizens.” Brink Lindsey experiences the tech upper-class enthusiasm in a different flame: The sentiment of UBI offers coverage against the reaction to the fiscal convulsions driven by technology.

“You need a really well-constructed, comprehensive safety net, ” he mentions, “to keep people from freaking out over all the inventive destruction that’s being fomented by Silicon Valley.”

Tim O’Reilly were of the view that tech should help government , not scorn it.

Jessica Ingram

Khanna and his tech constituents may be aligned on the idea of addressing income inequality through government intervention, but in other rooms, he is strikingly at odds with the reigning viewpoints in his district, particularly when it comes to labor and regulation. With regard to labor, the large-scale tech business tend toward the paternalism of offering free goods and services on lavish campuses, as well as good bribe. But their magnanimity has come with some caveats. In 2015, Adobe, Apple, Google, and Intel agreed to pay $415 million to settle a dres claiming they had contravened antitrust regulations by agreeing not to hire one another’s designers, which would have the effect of remaining payments down. Nor do most tech firms directly utilize the low-wage workers who would most is beneficial for unionization. Cleaning and give have often been outsourced. In the Tesla manufacturing facility in Khanna’s district, the company has reputedly stymie acts by its employees to join the United Auto Workers union. CEO Elon Musk, via Twitter, has denied these accounts: “Nothing stopping Tesla team at our auto embed from electing solidarity. Could do so tomorrow if they demanded. But why remunerate union dues and throw overboard stock options for nothing? ” But the National Labor Relations Board has entered individual complaints with multiple charges against the company.

Asked about those NLRB complaints, Khanna is quick to side with labor: “I believe that Tesla needs to do a better chore in allowing for confederation unionizing at its plant and also working with consolidation workers.” But he’s more theoretical about the tech sector’s general resistance to unitings. Tech culture celebrates iconoclasm, individualism, he does. “But a union is very much about harmony. About the community. About a social movement that you’re part of.”

The thornier issue for the tech area is regulation. With germinating calls for antitrust investigations of companionships like Amazon, Facebook, and Google, the tech sector’s general contempt for the regulatory position inspects less like a principled stance and is an attempt to avoid responsibility for the social and economic evil it is feasible to foster. Tech is known for pushing back against regulatory omission, from Uber’s vigorous combats against taxi regulations to contraventions with European union officials that culminated earlier this year when the brand-new GDPR regulations took effect.

Ron Conway, a “superangel” investor who is one of Khanna’s major backers and a key figure in Bay Area Democratic politics, tells tech business are still trying to figure out a road to avoid the heavy hand on the part of states oversight: “I think there’s a terribly gradual migration to openness about regulation, ” he relinquishes. But according to Conway, Mark Zuckerberg’s at times excruciating exchanges with tech-challenged legislators during his congressional testament this spring may have reinforced the sector’s impression that “self-regulation” would be preferable to “poorly considered regulations was put forward by beings with limited understanding of technology.”

Of course most professions would prefer to set their own voluntary industry standards. Khanna appears to have little faith than some of his Silicon Valley ingredients in the capacity of Big Tech or any industry to follow through, and he’s now generating his understanding of technology to bear in a way that his Valley adherents might not have foreseen. After the gossips of recent months–Russian infiltration of Facebook’s News Feed, government consulting conglomerate Cambridge Analytica getting access to users’ data without their assent, and the series of apologies and promises to do better next time–Khanna has begun work on a draft of what he calls an Internet Bill of Liberty at the request of House minority leader Nancy Pelosi. The proposal would, Khanna mentions, ensure that consumers have some measure of data portability between on-line service, which would impede the “lock-in” impressions that can give rise to digital monopolies. Khanna too wants to broaden the scope of antitrust implementation. He has spoken about the implications of the monopoly ability on wages and job loss , not just for purposes of determining whether absorption of fiscal power leads to higher tolls for consumers.

When I request Khanna about his support for authority oversight of technology industries, he starts out strong: “Regulation is necessitated, specially around privacy and data protections, ” he speaks. “It’s Congress’ role to come up with legislation for these protections–it’s not the number of jobs of thirtysomething entrepreneurs.” But he’s also careful not to get too specific and to offer up the expected paeans to the transformative superpower of technology. “Any discussion of antitrust needs to be nuanced and not simply’ large-scale is bad, ’ ” he adds. “We is a requirement to make sure there is room for dynamic competitor and new entrants in tech to promote innovation.”

He been shown that Big Tech has leveraging with Congress over coming regulation. Despite the most recent drubbing Facebook and other fellowships have received in the news, the big tech business still have a stellar reputation among the general public. “These companionships by and large are very popular now, according to polling, ” he adds. “They are far more popular than Congress is.”

Jennifer Pahlka founded Code for America with a “delivery-driven” philosophy.

Jessica Ingram

For a long time, even if it is not easy to set Silicon Valley’s viewpoints on the American government range, it was fairly easy to distinguish the tech industry’s savvy with maintaining political force in Washington. Namely: Tech corporations were neophytes. But that’s changed. “I’ve checked the tech society disappear from been really head-in-the-sand and inattentive to the political environment to being very politically aware and civically involved, ” Conway responds. “It’s been a terminated transformation–I think they got dragged into it by necessary, but it’s a good thought that they’re getting dragged into it.”

Khanna is currently in the process of drag them to the side of traditional progressives, and certainly there are a lot parties within tech fellowships who are already there. But for some tech supervisors, it may be too far.( The latest expedition finance registers been demonstrated that Andreessen and Thiel have not gifted again, though Khanna’s seat likewise seems safe .)

Lindsey accuseds that some of the current appeal of left-wing legislators like Khanna can be attributed to the fact that the liberaltarian worldview doesn’t have an self-evident home in any of the parties. It’s a fabric, he tells, “that people in Silicon Valley are intuitively groping toward. But because there isn’t an’ -ism’ out there on the shelf for them to grab … it’s understandable that they’re getting pulled toward standard progressive politicians.”

Consider this thought venture: If we handed over the reins of government to the tech elite surveyed in the Stanford study, are complemented by Khanna’s overtures, what kind of society would they invoke? The stagnant payments of the past 20 times would be supplemented by an expanded Earned Income Tax Credit, pay money by higher individual and corporate taxes. Health care would be universal and free. Student obligation “wouldve been” wiped out. And every adult in the country would get a grain asset of $12,000 a year , no strings fixed. In income for those benefits, unitings would continue their long slither into irrelevance. Proletarians would have to accept volatility, job loss, and permutation by technology. Startups would continue to drive unreliable altered in the economy, with limited regulation. In short-lived, the collisions and instability of constant disruption would continue, but we’d have fiscal breath bags.

Interestingly, the closest real-world equivalent to that perception is in the more entrepreneurial countries around Northern Europe: Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands. As Lindsey leans it, those nations “combine very free markets and free trade with exceedingly robust social spending.” Still, even if the progressive left and the tech nobility realize the remaining balance of those North Sea cultures, there are other handicaps. As popular as tech companionships are with the public, liberals are likely to see Big Tech as monopolistic and as evil as they considered Big Oil in its heyday, and almost as toxic as Big Tobacco, at least where our social state is concerned. Sanders-style activists, maddened by the injustice of income inequality, aren’t likely to find a natural ally in a assortment of tech plutocrats.

On the other hand, the 2016 election made it clear that there are no givens in US politics right now. The “confusion” that reigned in the government stadium in 1995 seems quaint next to the chaos of the Trump era. In such a unstable surrounding, brand-new federations might be possible–and so might brand-new crackings. You don’t have to be a cheerleader for Facebook and Google be suggested that the broader culture that demonstrated birth to those monsters might have some handy and original theories about how society should be organized. To date, those intuitions have been diffused, absence a real bloc or a standard-bearer. Khanna, whose professional lineage does him the most logical campaigner, might have some difficulty agreeing his views on labor and regulation to those used of his key allies. After years of construct software platforms that has now come to predominate the planet, the tech sector has started to build its own distinct political platform. The subject is whether there’s a registered political party in America right now capable of extending on it.

Steven Johnson ( @stevenbjohnson) is the author, very recently, of Farsighted: How We Start the Decisions That Material the Most.

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